For those who may be interested in this…
The table below shows how average essential and adipose tissue percentages differ according to the specified groups and categories:
Description Women Men
Essential fat 10–13% 2–5%
Athletes 14–20% 6–13%
Fitness 21–24% 14–17%
Average 25–31% 18–24%
Obese 32%+ 25%+
* * Essential fat is the level below which physical and physiological health would be negatively affected.
Controversy exists as to whether a particular body fat percentage is better for one’s health; athletic performance may also be affected.
The leanest athletes typically compete at levels of about 6–13% for men or 14–20% for women.
Bodybuilders may compete at ranges even lower than these levels. Certified personal trainers will suggest to male bodybuilders that they aim for a body fat percentage between 2% and 4% by contest time. However it is unclear that such levels are ever actually attained since (a) the means to measure such levels are, as noted below, lacking in principle, are inaccurate, and (b) 4–6% is generally considered a physiological minimum for human males. Any lower then this can affect your health….
Body builders may want to appear lean but generally speaking this is an unhealthy lifestyle long term …
Irrespective of the location from which they are obtained, the fat cells in humans are composed almost entirely of pure triglycerides with an average density of about 0.9 kilograms per liter. Most modern body composition laboratories today use the value of 1.1 kilograms per liter for the density of the “fat free mass”, a theoretical tissue composed of 72% water (density = 0.993), 21% protein (density = 1.340) and 7% mineral (density = 3.000) by weight.
With a well engineered weighing system, body density can be determined with great accuracy by completely submerging a person in water and calculating the volume of the displaced water from the weight of the displaced water.
A correction is made for the buoyancy of air in the lungs and other gases in the body spaces. If there were no error whatsoever in measuring body density, the uncertainty in fat estimation would be about ± 3.8% of the body weight, primarily because of normal variability in body constituents
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